Brandon Medical Clinics - Respiratory Diseases are a term that encompasses different pathological conditions which affect the organs and tissues that make the gas exchange possible. The conditions which fit under the designation of a respiratory disease, consist of problems with the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, bronchioles, trachea, pleura, pleural cavity, alveoli as well as the nerves and muscles which are responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from self-limiting and mild such as the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions like bacterial pneumonia, ling cancer and pulmonary embolism.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, whereas those specializing physicians in this area are known as a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this particular field may likewise be referred to as: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
There are numerous classifications utilized for the numerous respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the type and pattern of related signs and symptoms, or according to the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
Inflammatory Lung Disease is characterized by a high neutrophil count. Some examples include: acute respiratory distress syndrome, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder.
A common reason for acute respiratory disease is an allergic reaction because of exposure to different foods and agents. There are some really common allergens found in certain foods like for instance lemon, radish, sea foods like for example some prawns and fatty fish, bananas, peanuts, dairy and ice creams, pomegranates, arrowroot, lemon, lady's finger and berries. Weather conditions may likewise affect various people since dusty and sandy climate during summer can make the quality of air poor for people who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways comprising the bronchioles, alveoli and bronchi become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, hence making it more difficult to move air into and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases cause incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. IRDS or also referred to as Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory infections can affect all parts of the respiratory system. These infections are normally divided into either a lower respiratory tract infection or an upper respiratory tract infection.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The common cold is the most common type of upper respiratory infection. Infections of certain organs found in the upper respiratory tract like for instance pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and otitis media are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection usually caused by bacteria, generally Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large cause of pneumonia across the globe. Various fungi and viruses can lead to pneumonia too, like for example pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Tumors in the respiratory system are either benign or malignant.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity includes mesothelioma and emphysema. A build up of fluid in the pleural cavity is called a pleural effusion. This can be caused by situations such as cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, as the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may also occur from TB, pleura inflammation, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and various conditions.
The pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura that helps to cover the lungs, where air is allowed inside the lungs to escape into the pleural cavity. A tension pneumothorax is a severe kind of this where the air cannot escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the blood vessels and the heart, resulting in a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions which affect the pulmonary circulation are known as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Several instances include: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary edema and Pulmonary embolism.
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